Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Criterion of vehicle stability in floodwaters based on theoretical and experimental studies

Xia, Junqiang, Falconer, Roger Alexander ORCID:, Xiao, Xuanwei and Wang, Yejiang 2014. Criterion of vehicle stability in floodwaters based on theoretical and experimental studies. Natural Hazards 70 (2) , pp. 1619-1630. 10.1007/s11069-013-0889-2

[thumbnail of Xia 2014.pdf]
PDF - Accepted Post-Print Version
Download (227kB) | Preview


Vehicles parking on streets or roads can cause various hazards to people and property when they are swept away by urban floods. It is therefore appropriate to investigate the criterion of vehicle stability for such flood conditions, especially for different scenarios and where the criterion of vehicle stability is usually represented by the incipient velocity for the vehicle. In the current study, different forces acting on a partially submerged vehicle are outlined, together with the corresponding expressions of these forces, and a mechanics-based formula of incipient velocity is given for partially submerged vehicles under different orientation angles. About 200 runs of flume experiments were conducted to obtain the conditions of water depth and corresponding velocity at the threshold of vehicle instability for three orientation angles, using two types of die-cast model vehicles at two model scales. Experimental data obtained from the large-scale model vehicles were then used to determine two parameters in the derived formula. Finally, incipient velocities for three vehicle orientation angles were estimated using two different approaches, including predictions using the scale ratios from the small-scale model vehicles and computations based on derived formula using the prototype vehicle parameters. These critical conditions for the prototype conditions, based on the scale ratios, compared well with the calculations obtained using the derived formula, which guaranteed the predicative accuracy of the formula. In addition, the effect of different ground slopes on the vehicle incipient motion was also investigated, using similar experiments and based on the theory of similarity, which indicated that the incipient velocity for a small passenger vehicle on a ground slope of 1:50 was about 25 % lower than the value on a flat ground for an incoming depth of 0.25 m.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Additional Information: Pdf uploaded in accordance with publisher's policy at (accessed 11/03/2014).
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
ISSN: 0921-030X
Funders: Royal Academy of Engineering
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 25 Oct 2022 08:42

Citation Data

Cited 41 times in Scopus. View in Scopus. Powered By Scopus® Data

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics