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Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release

Nunan, Robert, Sivasathiaseelan, Harri, Khan, Damla, Zaben, Malik J. A. ORCID: and Gray, William Peter ORCID: 2014. Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release. Glia 62 (8) , pp. 1313-1327. 10.1002/glia.22682

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Neurogenesis, the production of new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), occurs throughout adulthood in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where it supports learning and memory. The innate and adaptive immune systems are increasingly recognized as important modulators of hippocampal neurogenesis under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms by which the immune system regulates hippocampal neurogenesis are incompletely understood. In particular, the role of microglia, the brains resident immune cell is complex, as they have been reported to both positively and negatively regulate neurogenesis. Interestingly, neuronal activity can also regulate the function of the immune system. Here, we show that depleting microglia from hippocampal cultures reduces NSPC survival and proliferation. Furthermore, addition of purified hippocampal microglia, or their conditioned media, is trophic and proliferative to NSPCs. VIP, a neuropeptide released by dentate gyrus interneurons, enhances the proliferative and pro-neurogenic effect of microglia via the VPAC1 receptor. This VIP-induced enhancement is mediated by IL-4 release, which directly targets NSPCs. This demonstrates a potential neuro-immuno-neurogenic pathway, disruption of which may have significant implications in conditions where combined cognitive impairments, interneuron loss, and immune system activation occurs, such as temporal lobe epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute (NMHRI)
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Uncontrolled Keywords: neurogenesis; microglia; VIP; cell culture
Additional Information: Online publication date: 6 May 2014.
Publisher: Wiley
ISSN: 0894-1491
Funders: Wellcome Trust
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Date of Acceptance: 6 May 2014
Last Modified: 12 Nov 2023 04:04

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