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Cortical interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells: prospects for neurological and psychiatric disease

Arber, Charles and Li, Meng ORCID: 2013. Cortical interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells: prospects for neurological and psychiatric disease. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 7 , 10. 10.3389/fncel.2013.00010

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Cortical interneurons represent 20% of the cells in the cortex. These cells are local inhibitory neurons whose function is to modulate the firing activities of the excitatory projection neurons. Cortical interneuron dysfunction is believed to lead to runaway excitation underlying (or implicated in) seizure-based diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. The complex development of this cell type and the intricacies involved in defining the relative subtypes are being increasingly well defined. This has led to exciting experimental cell therapy in model organisms, whereby fetal-derived interneuron precursors can reverse seizure severity and reduce mortality in adult epileptic rodents. These proof-of-principle studies raise hope for potential interneuron-based transplantation therapies for treating epilepsy. On the other hand, cortical neurons generated from patient iPSCs serve as a valuable tool to explore genetic influences of interneuron development and function. This is a fundamental step in enhancing our understanding of the molecular basis of neuropsychiatric illnesses and the development of targeted treatments. Protocols are currently being developed for inducing cortical interneuron subtypes from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. This review sets out to summarize the progress made in cortical interneuron development, fetal tissue transplantation and the recent advance in stem cell differentiation toward interneurons.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Uncontrolled Keywords: cortical interneurons, embryonic stem cells, cell therapy, proof-of-principle fetal transplant, seizure
Additional Information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc. This document is protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. It is reproduced with permission.
Publisher: Frontiers Media
ISSN: 1662-5102
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 11 May 2023 01:58

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