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The natural history, non-invasive sampling, activity patterns and population genetic structure of the Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

Gardner, Penny 2014. The natural history, non-invasive sampling, activity patterns and population genetic structure of the Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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The banteng (Bos javanicus lowi) is an endangered wild bovid that is endemic to the island of Borneo. Within their last stronghold, the Malaysian state of Sabah, their population is believed to be less than 500 individuals, which are threatened with extinction by habitat loss and hunting. The banteng is highly elusive and rarely seen, and their preference for dense and remote tropical forest habitat makes them a highly challenging species to study. No extensive quantitative surveys have been undertaken in Sabah, and there is little information available to underpin their conservation and management. This thesis provides the first baseline data on the Bornean banteng in Sabah using ecological and molecular techniques. In Chapter 2, I created the first extensive natural history account of the banteng, which will help further the knowledge of this species. This compilation helped identify gaps in the knowledge, which were then addressed by this thesis. In Chapter 3, I test non-invasive survey techniques and individual identification, and estimate the population size in two forest reserves. In Chapter 4, I demonstrate that logged forests undergo dramatic changes in structure and ambient temperature, and that banteng mitigate these changes by altering their behaviour to avoid thermal-stress. Chapter 5 presents new information of the population genetic structure of banteng in four forest reserves in Sabah. Using mitochondrial markers I show that the ancestral lineage of the Bornean banteng reinforces the suggestion that they should be recognised as a separate subspecies to the Burmese and Javan banteng. I also show that the banteng experienced a population expansion following their colonisation of Borneo, and that the present genetic diversity indicates the population may be managed as two geographically-distinct units. Chapter 6 summarises the main findings of this thesis and the implications for the conservation of the Bornean banteng in Sabah.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > QH Natural history
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Q Science > QL Zoology
S Agriculture > SD Forestry
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bornean banteng, Bos javanicus lowi, Sabah, Malaysia, Borneo, tropical forest, ungulate, endangered, behaviour, ecology, population genetics, camera trap, non-invasive, species conservation, mammal, hunting
Funders: Houston Zoo, Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund, Malaysian Palm Oil Council, Woodland Park Zoo
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Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2023 10:42

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