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Bacillus subtilisvegetative isolate surviving chlorine dioxide exposure: an elusive mechanism of resistance

Martin, Deborah J. H., Wesgate, Rebecca R., Denyer, Stephen P., McDonnell, Gerald and Maillard, Jean-Yves ORCID: 2015. Bacillus subtilisvegetative isolate surviving chlorine dioxide exposure: an elusive mechanism of resistance. Journal of Applied Microbiology 119 (6) , pp. 1541-1551. 10.1111/jam.12963

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Aims Oxidizing agents such as chlorine dioxide are widely used microbicides, including for disinfection of medical equipment. We isolated a Bacillus subtilis isolate from a washer-disinfector whose vegetative form demonstrated unique resistance to chlorine dioxide (0·03%) and hydrogen peroxide (7·5%). The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms of resistance expressed by this isolate. Methods and Results A range of resistance mechanisms were investigated in the B. subtilis isolate and a reference B. subtilis strain (ATCC 6051) to include bacterial cell aggregation, the presence of profuse exopolysaccharide (EPS), and the expression of detoxification enzymes. The basis of resistance of the isolate to high concentrations of oxidizing agents was not linked to the presence of endospores. Although, the presence of EPS, aggregation and expression of detoxification enzymes may play a role in bacterial survival to low concentrations of chlorine dioxide, it is unlikely that the mechanisms helped tested to survive the bactericidal effect of higher oxidizer concentrations. Conclusions Overall, the mechanisms conferring resistance to chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide remains elusive. Based on recent advances in the mode of action of oxidizing agents and notably hydrogen peroxide, we postulate that additional efficient intracellular mechanisms may be involved to explain significant resistance to in-use concentrations of commonly used high-level disinfectants.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
Subjects: R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Publisher: Wiley
ISSN: 1364-5072
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Date of Acceptance: 26 September 2015
Last Modified: 05 May 2023 06:26

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