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A hybrid model for the evolution of galaxies and active galactic nuclei in the infrared

Cai, Z., Lapi, A., Xia, J., De Zotti, G., Negrello, Mattia ORCID:, Gruppioni, C., Rigby, E., Castex, G., Delabrouille, J. and Danese, L. 2013. A hybrid model for the evolution of galaxies and active galactic nuclei in the infrared. The Astrophysical Journal 768 (1) , p. 21. 10.1088/0004-637X/768/1/21

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We present a comprehensive investigation of the cosmological evolution of the luminosity function of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the infrared (IR). Based on the observed dichotomy in the ages of stellar populations of early-type galaxies on one side and late-type galaxies on the other, the model interprets the epoch-dependent luminosity functions at z ≥ 1.5 using a physical approach for the evolution of proto-spheroidal galaxies and of the associated AGNs, while IR galaxies at z < 1.5 are interpreted as being mostly late-type "cold" (normal) and "warm" (starburst) galaxies. As for proto-spheroids, in addition to the epoch-dependent luminosity functions of stellar and AGN components separately, we have worked out, for the first time, the evolving luminosity functions of these objects as a whole (stellar plus AGN component), taking into account in a self-consistent way the variation with galactic age of the global spectral energy distribution. The model provides a physical explanation for the observed positive evolution of both galaxies and AGNs up to z sime 2.5 and for the negative evolution at higher redshifts, for the sharp transition from Euclidean to extremely steep counts at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths, as well as the (sub-)millimeter counts of strongly lensed galaxies that are hard to account for by alternative, physical or phenomenological, approaches. The evolution of late-type galaxies and z < 1.5 AGNs is described using a parametric phenomenological approach. The modeled AGN contributions to the counts and to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) are always sub-dominant. They are maximal at mid-IR wavelengths: the contribution to the 15 and 24 μm counts reaches 20% above 10 and 2 mJy, respectively, while the contributions to the CIB are of 8.6% and of 8.1% at 15 μm and 24 μm, respectively. The model provides a good fit to the multi-wavelength (from the mid-IR to millimeter waves) data on luminosity functions at different redshifts and on number counts (both global and per redshift slices). A prediction of the present model, useful to test it, is a systematic variation with wavelength of the populations dominating the counts and the contributions to the CIB intensity. This implies a specific trend for cross-wavelength CIB power spectra, which is found to be in good agreement with the data.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
Publisher: IOP Publishing
ISSN: 0004637X
Last Modified: 31 Oct 2022 10:12

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