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Randomized phase III trial of standard therapy plus low molecular weight heparin in patients with lung cancer: FRAGMATIC trial

Macbeth, Fergus, Noble, Simon ORCID:, Evans, Jessica, Ahmed, Sheikh, Cohen, David, Hood, Kerenza ORCID:, Knoyle, Dana, Linnane, Seamus, Longo, Mirella ORCID:, Moore, Barbara, Woll, Penella J., Appel, Wiebke, Dickson, Jeanette, Ferry, David, Brammer, Caroline and Griffiths, Gareth 2016. Randomized phase III trial of standard therapy plus low molecular weight heparin in patients with lung cancer: FRAGMATIC trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 34 (5) , pp. 488-494. 10.1200/JCO.2015.64.0268

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Purpose Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients. Evidence has suggested that low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) might improve survival in patients with cancer by preventing both VTE and the progression of metastases. No trial in a single cancer type has been powered to demonstrate a clinically significant survival difference. The aim of this trial was to investigate this question in patients with lung cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial to evaluate the addition of a primary prophylactic dose of LMWH for 24 weeks to standard treatment in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer of any stage and histology. The primary outcome was 1-year survival. Secondary outcomes included metastasis-free survival, VTE-free survival, toxicity, and quality of life. Results For this trial, 2,202 patients were randomly assigned to the two treatment arms over 4 years. The trial did not reach its intended number of events for the primary analysis (2,047 deaths), and data were analyzed after 2,013 deaths after discussion with the independent data monitoring committee. There was no evidence of a difference in overall or metastasis-free survival between the two arms (hazard ratio [HR], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10; P = .814; and HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.08; P = .864, respectively). There was a reduction in the risk of VTE from 9.7% to 5.5% (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.79; P = .001) in the LMWH arm and no difference in major bleeding events but evidence of an increase in the composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in the LMWH arm. Conclusion LMWH did not improve overall survival in the patients with lung cancer in this trial. A significant reduction in VTE is associated with an increase in clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Strategies to target those at greatest risk of VTE are warranted.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)
Additional Information: Published online before print December 23, 2015
Publisher: American Society of Clinical Oncology
ISSN: 0732-183X
Funders: Cancer Research UK
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2022 03:17

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