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The effects of inorganic additives on the nucleation and growth kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals

Rabizadeh, Taher, Stawski, Tomasz M., Morgan, David John, Peacock, Caroline L. and Benning, Liane G. 2017. The effects of inorganic additives on the nucleation and growth kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals. Crystal Growth and Design 17 (2) , pp. 582-589. 10.1021/acs.cgd.6b01441

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The effects that 50–500 mM aqueous Li+, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ have on the crystallization kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum; CaSO4·2H2O) were determined by in situ and time-resolved UV–vis spectrophotometry. The mechanisms of surface or structural associations between these additives and the end-product gypsum crystals were evaluated through a combination of inductively coupled plasma mass and/or optical emission spectrometric analyses of digested end-products and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the surface of the solids. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were utilized for determining any changes in phase composition and growth morphologies of the formed crystals. Our results revealed that Mg2+, even at low concentrations, decreased the nucleation and growth kinetics 5–10 fold more than Li+, Na+, and K+. In all cases, the additives also changed the shapes and sizes of the formed crystals, with Mg2+ and Li+ resulting in longer and narrower crystals compared to the additive-free system. In addition, we show that, regardless of concentration, Mg2+, Li+, and K+ only adsorb to the newly forming surfaces of the growing gypsum crystals, while ∼25% of Na+ becomes incorporated into the synthesized crystals.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Cardiff Catalysis Institute (CCI)
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 1528-7483
Funders: European Commission Marie Curie Fellowship
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 9 January 2017
Date of Acceptance: 20 December 2016
Last Modified: 24 Nov 2020 14:16

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