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Performance of industrial melting pots in the provision of dynamic frequency response in the Great Britain power system

Cheng, Meng, Wu, Jianzhong ORCID:, Galsworthy, Stephen J., Gargov, Nikola, Hung, William H. and Zhou, Yue ORCID: 2017. Performance of industrial melting pots in the provision of dynamic frequency response in the Great Britain power system. Applied Energy 201 , pp. 245-256. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.12.014

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As a result of the increasing integration of Renewable Energy Source (RES), maintenance of the balance between supply and demand in the power system is more challenging because of RES’s intermittency and uncontrollability. The smart control of demand is able to contribute to the balance by providing the grid frequency response. This paper uses the industrial Melting Pot (MP) loads as an example. A thermodynamic model depicting the physical characteristics of MPs was firstly developed based on field measurements carried out by Open Energi. A distributed control was applied to each MP which dynamically changes the aggregated power consumption of MPs in proportion to changes in grid frequency while maintaining the primary heating function of each MP. An aggregation of individual MP models equipped with the control was integrated with the Great Britain (GB) power system models. Case studies verified that the aggregated MPs are able to provide frequency response to the power system. The response from MPs is similar but faster than the conventional generators and therefore contributes to the reduction of carbon emissions by replacing the spinning reserve capacity of fossil-fuel generators. Through the reviews of the present balancing services in the GB power system, with the proposed frequency control strategy, the Firm Frequency Response service is most beneficial at present for demand aggregators to tender for. All studies have been conducted in partnership between Cardiff University, Open Energi London – Demand Aggregator, and National Grid – System Operator in GB to ensure the quality and compliance of results.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Demand response; Distributed control; Dynamic demand; Frequency response; Smart grids
Additional Information: This is an open access article under the CC BY license
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0306-2619
Funders: EPSRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 24 July 2017
Date of Acceptance: 3 December 2016
Last Modified: 05 May 2023 11:36

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