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Macrophage plasticity and function in the lung tumour microenvironment revealed in 3D heterotypic spheroid and explant models

Evans, Lauren, Milward, Kate, Attanoos, Richard, Clayton, Aled, Errington, Rachel and Tabi, Zsuzsanna 2021. Macrophage plasticity and function in the lung tumour microenvironment revealed in 3D heterotypic spheroid and explant models. Biomedicines 9 (3) , 302. 10.3390/biomedicines9030302

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Abstract

In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), stroma-resident and tumour-infiltrating macrophages may facilitate an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME) and hamper immunotherapeutic responses. Analysis of tumour-associated macrophage (TAM) plasticity in NSCLC is largely lacking. We established a novel, multi-marker, dual analysis approach for assessing monocyte-derived macrophage (Mφ polarisation and M1/M2 phenotypic plasticity. We developed a flow cytometry-based, two-marker analysis (CD64 and CD206) of CD14+ cells. The phenotype and immune function of in vitro-induced TAMs was studied in a heterotypic spheroid and tumour-derived explant model of NSCLC. Heterotypic spheroids and NSCLC explants skewed Mφs from an M1- (CD206loCD64hi) to M2-like (CD206hiCD64lo) phenotype. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFNγ treatment reversed M2-like Mφ polarisation, indicating the plasticity of Mφs. Importantly, antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were reduced in the presence of tumour explant-conditioned Mφs, but not spheroid-conditioned Mφs, suggesting explants are likely a more relevant model of the immune TME than cell line-derived spheroids. Our data indicates the importance of multi-marker, functional analyses within Mφ subsets and the advantages of the ex vivo NSCLC explant model in immunomodulation studies. We highlight the plasticity of the M1/M2 phenotype using the explant model and provide a tool for studying therapeutic interventions designed to reprogram M2-like Mφ-induced immunosuppression.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and con‐ ditions of the Creative Commons At‐ tribution (CC BY) license (http://crea‐ tivecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2227-9059
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 17 March 2021
Date of Acceptance: 11 March 2021
Last Modified: 05 May 2021 01:21
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/139888

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