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Fuel flexibility with low emissions for gas turbine engines

Kurji, Hayder 2017. Fuel flexibility with low emissions for gas turbine engines. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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This work examined the performance of swirl burners using different injection strategies for various substitute fuels. The research procedure involved various stages; firstly, an assessment study between two liquid fuels, a pure biodiesel and saturated biodiesel, compared to kerosene. Atomization forms were obtained, and a combustion test campaign was initiated using a generic swirl burner. Emissions and power outputs were measured at gas turbine relevant equivalence ratios. Excess oxygen and atomization trends in the biodiesel seem to be playing a significant role in the creation of emissions and flame stability when compared to kerosene. Secondly, an experimental study on the combustion of methane-carbon dioxide mixtures was achieved. Gas mixtures were examined by using different injection strategies with and without swirl and with and without central injection. A smaller 20-kW swirl burner was used to analyse stability and emissions performance by using these blends and to study the impact of CO2 addition. The burner configuration comprised a centre body with an annular, premixed gas/air jet introduced through five, 60° swirl vanes. CO2 dilution reduced flame stability and operability range. The introduction of CO2 decreases temperatures in the combustion zone thus producing a lessening in emissions of nitrous oxides across all equivalence ratios. Regarding injection regimes, the external purely premixed injection system has lower NOx and CO. Addition of CO2 increases the lean blowout limit of all blends. In the last section, a new burner was finally employed to carry out trials using multi-phase injection, where, experimental work investigated the performance of a swirl burner using various mixtures of CO2/CH4 blends with either diesel or biodiesel derived from cooking oil. The swirl burner was employed to analyse gas turbine combustion features under atmospheric conditions to quantify flame stability and emissions by using these fuels. The results revealed that the use of biodiesel and CO2/CH4 blends mixtures led to lower CO production. Results showed that a notable reduction of ~50% in NOx was obtained at all conditions for the biodiesel blends.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Date Type: Completion
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Combustion; Two Phase; Emissions; Swirl; Stability; Biodiesel.
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 26 September 2017
Last Modified: 29 Apr 2021 15:32

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