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Red-flag sepsis and SOFA identifies different patient population at risk of sepsis-related deaths on the general ward

Kopczynska, Maja, Sharif, Ben, Cleaver, Sian, Spencer, Naomi, Kurani, Amit, Lee, Camilla, Webster, Jessica, Durie, Carys, Joseph-Gubral, Jude, Sharma, Angelica, Allen, Lucy, Atkins, Billie, Gordon, Alex, Jones, Llewelyn, Noble, Amy, Bradley, Matthew, Atkinson, Henry, Inns, Joy, Penney, Harriet, Gilbert, Carys, Walford, Rebecca, Pike, Louise, Edwards, Ross, Howcroft, Robyn, Preston, Hazel, Gee, Jennifer, Doyle, Nicholas, Maden, Charlotte, Smith, Claire Frances MacLaughlin, Azis, Nik Syakirah Nik, Vadivale, Navrhinaa and Szakmany, Tamas 2018. Red-flag sepsis and SOFA identifies different patient population at risk of sepsis-related deaths on the general ward. Medicine 97 (49) , e13238. 10.1097/MD.0000000000013238

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Controversy exists regarding the best diagnostic and screening tool for sepsis outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score has been shown to be superior to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, however, the performance of “Red Flag sepsis criteria” has not been tested formally. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of Red Flag sepsis criteria to identify the patients at high risk of sepsis-related death in comparison to SOFA based sepsis criteria. We also investigated the comparison of Red Flag sepsis to quick SOFA (qSOFA), SIRS, and national early warning score (NEWS) scores and factors influencing patient mortality. Patients were recruited into a 24-hour point-prevalence study on the general wards and emergency departments across all Welsh acute hospitals. Inclusion criteria were: clinical suspicion of infection and NEWS 3 or above in-line with established escalation criteria in Wales. Data on Red Flag sepsis and SOFA criteria was collected together with qSOFA and SIRS scores and 90-day mortality. 459 patients were recruited over a 24-hour period. 246 were positive for Red Flag sepsis, mortality 33.7% (83/246); 241 for SOFA based sepsis criteria, mortality 39.4% (95/241); 54 for qSOFA, mortality 57.4% (31/54), and 268 for SIRS, mortality 33.6% (90/268). 55 patients were not picked up by any criteria. We found that older age was associated with death with OR (95% CI) of 1.03 (1.02–1.04); higher frailty score 1.24 (1.11–1.40); DNA-CPR order 1.74 (1.14–2.65); ceiling of care 1.55 (1.02–2.33); and SOFA score of 2 and above 1.69 (1.16–2.47). The different clinical tools captured different subsets of the at-risk population, with similar sensitivity. SOFA score 2 or above was independently associated with increased risk of death at 90 days. The sequalae of infection-related organ dysfunction cannot be reliably captured based on routine clinical and physiological parameters alone.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
ISSN: 0025-7974
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 23 October 2018
Date of Acceptance: 22 October 2018
Last Modified: 24 Aug 2022 07:48

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