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Molecular pathology of Lynch Syndrome

Cerretelli, G., Ager, A., Arends, M. J. and Frayling, I. M. 2020. Molecular pathology of Lynch Syndrome. Journal of Pathology 250 (5) , pp. 518-531. 10.1002/path.5422

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Lynch syndrome (LS) is characterised by predisposition to colorectal, endometrial and other cancers and is caused by inherited pathogenic variants affecting the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. It is probably the most common predisposition to cancer, having an estimated prevalence of between 1/100 and 1/180. Resources such as the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Cancer's MMR gene variant database, the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) and the Colon Cancer Family Register (CCFR), as well as pathological and immunological studies are enabling advances in the understanding of LS. These include defined criteria by which to interpret gene variants, the function of MMR in the normal control of apoptosis, definition of the risks of the various cancers, and the mechanisms and pathways by which the colorectal and endometrial tumours develop, including the critical role of the immune system. Colorectal cancers in LS can develop along three pathways, including flat intramucosal lesions, which depend on the underlying affected MMR gene. This gives insights into the limitations of colonoscopic surveillance and highlights the need for other forms of anti‐cancer prophylaxis in LS. Finally, it shows that the processes of autoimmunisation and immunoediting fundamentally constrain the development of tumours in LS and explains the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade therapy in MMR deficient tumours.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Wiley
ISSN: 0022-3417
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 18 March 2020
Date of Acceptance: 2 March 2020
Last Modified: 07 Oct 2021 03:12

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