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Susceptibility of Biallelic Haplotype and Genotype Frequencies to Genotyping Error

Escott-Price, Valentina ORCID: and Schmidt, Karl Michael ORCID: 2006. Susceptibility of Biallelic Haplotype and Genotype Frequencies to Genotyping Error. Biometrics 62 (4) , pp. 1116-1123. 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2006.00563.x

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With the availability of fast genotyping methods and genomic databases, the search for statistical association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with a complex trait has become an important methodology in medical genetics. However, even fairly rare errors occurring during the genotyping process can lead to spurious association results and decrease in statistical power. We develop a systematic approach to study how genotyping errors change the genotype distribution in a sample. The general M-marker case is reduced to that of a single-marker locus by recognizing the underlying tensor-product structure of the error matrix. Both method and general conclusions apply to the general error model; we give detailed results for allele-based errors of size depending both on the marker locus and the allele present. Multiple errors are treated in terms of the associated diffusion process on the space of genotype distributions. We find that certain genotype and haplotype distributions remain unchanged under genotyping errors, and that genotyping errors generally render the distribution more similar to the stable one. In case–control association studies, this will lead to loss of statistical power for nondifferential genotyping errors and increase in type I error for differential genotyping errors. Moreover, we show that allele-based genotyping errors do not disturb Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the genotype distribution. In this setting we also identify maximally affected distributions. As they correspond to situations with rare alleles and marker loci in high linkage disequilibrium, careful checking for genotyping errors is advisable when significant association based on such alleles/haplotypes is observed in association studies.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Mathematics
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Uncontrolled Keywords: Diffusion process; Genotype distribution; Genotyping error; Haplotype distribution; Tensor product
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0006-341X
Last Modified: 03 Dec 2022 11:24

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