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Carbamazepine induces focused T cell responses in resolved Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis cases but does not perturb the immunopeptidome for T cell recognition

Mifsud, Nicole A., Illing, Patricia T., Lai, Jeffrey W., Fettke, Heidi, Hensen, Luca, Huang, Ziyi, Rossjohn, Jamie, Vivian, Julian P., Kwan, Patrick and Purcell, Anthony W. 2021. Carbamazepine induces focused T cell responses in resolved Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis cases but does not perturb the immunopeptidome for T cell recognition. Frontiers in Immunology 12 , 653710. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.653710

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Abstract

Antiseizure medications (ASMs) are frequently implicated in T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions and cause skin tropic pathologies that range in severity from mild rashes to life-threatening systemic syndromes. During the acute stages of the more severe manifestations of these reactions, drug responsive proinflammatory CD8+ T cells display classical features of Th1 cytokine production (e.g. IFNγ) and cytolysis (e.g. granzyme B, perforin). These T cells may be found locally at the site of pathology (e.g. blister cells/fluid), as well as systemically (e.g. blood, organs). What is less understood are the long-lived immunological effects of the memory T cell pool following T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions. In this study, we examine the ASM carbamazepine (CBZ) and the CBZ-reactive memory T cell pool in patients who have a history of either Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) from 3-to-20 years following their initial adverse reaction. We show that in vitro drug restimulation of CBZ-reactive CD8+ T cells results in a proinflammatory profile and produces a mainly focused, yet private, T cell receptor (TCR) usage amongst human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*15:02-positive SJS or TEN patients. Additionally, we show that expression of these CBZ-reactive TCRs in a reporter cell line, lacking endogenous αβTCR, recapitulates the features of TCR activation reported for ASM-treated T cell lines/clones, providing a useful tool for further functional validations. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the HLA-B*15:02 immunopeptidome following ASM (or a metabolite) treatment of a HLA-B*15:02-positive B-lymphoblastoid cell line (C1R.B*15:02) and minor perturbation of the peptide repertoire. Collectively, this study shows that the CBZ-reactive T cells characterized require both the drug and HLA-B*15:02 for activation and that reactivation of memory T cells from blood results in a focused private TCR profile in patients with resolved disease.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Frontiers Media
ISSN: 1664-3224
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 17 June 2021
Date of Acceptance: 22 March 2021
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2021 13:45
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/141960

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