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Insights from single cell RNA sequencing Into the immunology of type 1 diabetes- cell phenotypes and antigen specificity

Hanna, Stephanie J., Tatovic, Danijela, Thayer, Terri C. and Dayan, Colin M. 2021. Insights from single cell RNA sequencing Into the immunology of type 1 diabetes- cell phenotypes and antigen specificity. Frontiers in Immunology 12 , 751701. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.751701

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Abstract

In the past few years, huge advances have been made in techniques to analyse cells at an individual level using RNA sequencing, and many of these have precipitated exciting discoveries in the immunology of type 1 diabetes (T1D). This review will cover the first papers to use scRNAseq to characterise human lymphocyte phenotypes in T1D in the peripheral blood, pancreatic lymph nodes and islets. These have revealed specific genes such as IL-32 that are differentially expressed in islet –specific T cells in T1D. scRNAseq has also revealed wider gene expression patterns that are involved in T1D and can predict its development even predating autoantibody production. Single cell sequencing of TCRs has revealed V genes and CDR3 motifs that are commonly used to target islet autoantigens, although truly public TCRs remain elusive. Little is known about BCR repertoires in T1D, but scRNAseq approaches have revealed that insulin binding BCRs commonly use specific J genes, share motifs between donors and frequently demonstrate poly-reactivity. This review will also summarise new developments in scRNAseq technology, the insights they have given into other diseases and how they could be leveraged to advance research in the type 1 diabetes field to identify novel biomarkers and targets for immunotherapy.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
Publisher: Frontiers Media
ISSN: 1664-3224
Funders: Wellcome Trust
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 1 October 2021
Date of Acceptance: 14 September 2021
Last Modified: 31 Jan 2022 08:08
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/144601

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