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Early life inter-kingdom interactions shape the immunological environment of the airways

Pattaroni, Céline, Macowan, Matthew, Chatzis, Roxanne, Daunt, Carmel, Custovic, Adnan, Shields, Michael D., Power, Ultan F., Grigg, Jonathan, Roberts, Graham, Ghazal, Peter ORCID:, Schwarze, Jürgen, Gore, Mindy, Turner, Steve, Bush, Andrew, Saglani, Sejal, Lloyd, Clare M. and Marsland, Benjamin J. 2022. Early life inter-kingdom interactions shape the immunological environment of the airways. Microbiome 10 (1) , 34. 10.1186/s40168-021-01201-y

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Background There is increasing evidence that the airway microbiome plays a key role in the establishment of respiratory health by interacting with the developing immune system early in life. While it has become clear that bacteria are involved in this process, there is a knowledge gap concerning the role of fungi. Moreover, the inter-kingdom interactions that influence immune development remain unknown. In this prospective exploratory human study, we aimed to determine early post-natal microbial and immunological features of the upper airways in 121 healthy newborns. Results We found that the oropharynx and nasal cavity represent distinct ecological niches for bacteria and fungi. Breastfeeding correlated with changes in microbiota composition of oropharyngeal samples with the greatest impact upon the relative abundance of Streptococcus species and Candida. Host transcriptome profiling revealed that genes with the highest expression variation were immunological in nature. Multi-omics factor analysis of host and microbial data revealed unique co-variation patterns. Conclusion These data provide evidence of a diverse multi-kingdom microbiota linked with local immunological characteristics in the first week of life that could represent distinct trajectories for future respiratory health.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 2049-2618
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 25 March 2022
Date of Acceptance: 12 November 2021
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2022 10:59

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