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Emergency services utilization in Jakarta (Indonesia): A cross-sectional study of patients attending hospital emergency departments

Brice, Syaribah, Boutilier, Justin, Gartner, Daniel ORCID:, Harper, Paul ORCID:, Knight, Vincent ORCID:, Lloyd, Jen, Djuned, Aryono, Puspita, Asti, Turnbull-Ross, Jonathan and Tuson, Mark 2022. Emergency services utilization in Jakarta (Indonesia): A cross-sectional study of patients attending hospital emergency departments. BMC Health Services Research 22 , 639. 10.1186/s12913-022-08061-8

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Background Pre-hospital and emergency services in Indonesia are still developing. Despite recent improvements in the Indonesian healthcare system, issues with the provision of pre-hospital and emergency services persist. The demand for pre-hospital and emergency services has not been the subject of previous research and, therefore, has not been fully understood. Our research explored the utilization of emergency medical services by patients attending hospital emergency departments in Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods The study used a cross-sectional survey design involving five general hospitals (four government-funded and one private). Each patient’s demographic profile, medical conditions, time to treatment, and mode of transport to reach the hospital were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 1964 (62%) patients were surveyed. The median age of patients was 44 years with an interquartile range (IQR) of 26 to 58 years. Life-threatening conditions such as trauma and cardiovascular disease were found in 8.6 and 6.6% of patients, respectively. The majority of patients with trauma travelled to the hospital using a motorcycle or car (59.8%). An ambulance was used by only 9.3% of all patients and 38% of patients reported that they were not aware of the availability of ambulances. Ambulance response time was longer as compared to other modes of transportation (median: 24 minutes and IQR: 12 to 54 minutes). The longest time to treatment was experienced by patients with neurological disease, with a median time of 120 minutes (IQR: 78 to 270 minutes). Patients who used ambulances incurred higher costs as compared to those patients who did not use ambulances. Conclusion The low utilization of emergency ambulances in Jakarta could be contributed to patients’ lack of awareness of medical symptoms and the existence of ambulance services, and patients’ disinclination to use ambulances due to high costs and long response times. The emergency ambulance services can be improved by increasing population awareness on symptoms that warrant the use of ambulances and reducing the cost burden related to ambulance use.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Mathematics
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 1472-6963
Funders: EPSRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 10 May 2022
Date of Acceptance: 27 April 2022
Last Modified: 04 May 2023 21:40

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