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An analysis of serological response and infection outcomes following Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZD1222) and Pfizer-BioNTech (mRNA BNT162b2) SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in kidney and kidney pancreas transplants

Asderakis, Argiris ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6859-2020, Khalid, Usman, Koimtzis, Georgios, Ponsford, Mark J., Szabo, Laszlo, Chalklin, Christopher, Bramhall, Kathryn, Grant, Leanne, Moat, Stuart J., Humphreys, Ian R. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9512-5337 and Jolles, Stephen R. 2022. An analysis of serological response and infection outcomes following Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZD1222) and Pfizer-BioNTech (mRNA BNT162b2) SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in kidney and kidney pancreas transplants. Transplantation 106 (7) , pp. 1421-1429. 10.1097/tp.0000000000004105
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Abstract

Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is associated with high mortality among transplant recipients. Comparative data that define humoral responses to the Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZ) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccines are limited. Methods. We recruited 920 kidney transplant patients receiving at least 1 dose of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine, excluding patients with virus pre-exposure. Serological status was determined with the COVID-SeroKlir ELISA (Kantaro-EKF Diagnostics). Patients with a corrected antibody level of <0.7 AU/mL were considered seronegative. Results. Four hundred ninety-five AZ and 141 Pfizer patients had a sample analyzed after first dose and 593 after second dose (346 AZ versus 247 Pfizer). After first dose, 25.7% of patients seroconverted (26.6% AZ, 22.8% Pfizer). After second dose, 148 (42.8%) of AZ seroconverted compared with 130 (52.6%) of Pfizer (P = 0.02; hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.06). When negative responders were excluded, Pfizer patients were shown to have significantly higher response than AZ patients (median 2.6 versus 1.78 AU/mL, P = 0.005). Patients on mycophenolate had a reduced seroconversion rate (42.2% versus 61.4%; P < 0.001; hazard ratio, 2.17) and reduced antibody levels (0.47 versus 1.22 AU/mL, P = 0.001), and this effect was dose dependent (P = 0.05). Prednisolone reduced the seroconversion from 58.2% to 43.6% (P = 0.03) among Pfizer but not AZ recipients. Regression analysis showed that antibody levels were reduced by older age (P = 0.002), mycophenolate (P < 0.001), AZ vaccine (versus Pfizer, P = 0.001), and male gender (P = 0.02). Sixteen of 17 serious postvaccine infections occurred to patients who did not seroconvert. Conclusions. Both seroconversion and antibody levels are lower in AZ compared with Pfizer vaccinated recipients following 2 vaccine doses. Mycophenolate was associated with lower antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Serious postvaccine infections occurred among seronegative recipients.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
ISSN: 0041-1337
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 5 January 2023
Date of Acceptance: 26 January 2022
Last Modified: 05 Jan 2023 20:39
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/150695

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