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High-fat diet-induced functional and pathologic changes in lacrimal gland

He, Xin, Zhao, Zhongyang, Wang, Shaopan, Kang, Jie, Zhang, Minjie, Bu, Jinghua, Cai, Xiaoxin, Jia, Changkai, Li, Yixuan, Li, Kechun, Reinach, Peter Sol, Quantock, Andrew J. ORCID:, Liu, Zuguo and Li, Wei 2020. High-fat diet-induced functional and pathologic changes in lacrimal gland. The American Journal of Pathology 190 (12) , P2387-P2402. 10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.09.002

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The lacrimal gland is critical for maintaining the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment through secreting aqueous tears in mammals. Many systemic diseases such as Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes can alter the lacrimal gland function, eventually resulting in aqueous tear–deficient dry eye. Here, a high-fat diet (HFD) experimental mouse model was used to clarify how hyperlipidemia affects lacrimal gland function. Aqueous tear secretion fell about 50% after 1 month on a HFD. Lipid droplets accumulated in the matrix and acinar cells of the lacrimal gland after this period, along with changes in the lipid metabolism, changes in gene expression levels, and disruption of fatty acid oxidative activity. Immune cell infiltration and rises in the gene expression levels of the inflammation-related cytokines Il1β, Tnfα, Tsg6, Il10, Mmp2, and Mmp9 were found. HFD also induced mitochondrial hypermegasoma, increased apoptosis, and decreased lacrimal gland acinar cell proliferation. Replacement of the HFD with the standard diet partially reversed pathologic changes in the lacrimal gland. Similarly, supplementing the HFD with fenofibrate also partially reversed the inhibited tear secretion and reduced lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative stress levels. The authors conclude that a HFD induces pathophysiological changes and functional decompensation of the lacrimal gland. Therefore, ingestion of a HFD may be a causative factor of dry eye disease.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Optometry and Vision Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0002-9440
Date of Acceptance: 3 September 2020
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2023 15:00

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