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Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology surface changes in untreated children from 12 to 14 years of age

Kau, Chung How and Richmond, Stephen ORCID: 2008. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology surface changes in untreated children from 12 to 14 years of age. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 134 (6) , pp. 751-760. 10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.01.037

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The developing face is of interest to orthodontists, especially if orthodontic treatment can influence the outcome of facial growth. New 3-dimensional (3D) modalities have enabled clinicians to better understand the facial changes in a developing child. Methods: Fifty-nine children with normal body mass indexes were evaluated with a previously validated 3D laser imaging device over a 2-year period. Surface changes were evaluated on normal and average faces. These changes were seen as mean surface changes and color maps. Results: The results suggest that the surface areas of change in average faces were generally downward and forward with respect to the nose and soft-tissue nasion. The lips also translated in a downward direction as the nose grew, and there was a general increase in the vertical dimension. Some subjects were in the "great changes" category, boys significantly more so than girls. Conclusions: The following conclusions can be made from this 3D study of changes of facial morphology in children: (1) surface changes are greater in boys than in girls; (2) differences in the timing of surface changes in boys and girls are clinically significant, with boys exhibiting more changes later; (3) positive surface changes occur in the nose, brows, lips, and vertical dimensions of the face; (4) the eyes deepen, and the cheeks become flatter; and (5) 3D imaging is a useful tool in analyzing changes to the face over time. (Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008; 134: 751-60)

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0889-5406
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2022 13:55

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