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Facial Movement in 3 Dimensions: Average Templates of Lip Movement in Adults

Popat, Hashmat, Richmond, Stephen ORCID:, Marshall, D. and Rosin, Paul L. ORCID: 2011. Facial Movement in 3 Dimensions: Average Templates of Lip Movement in Adults. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 145 (1) , pp. 24-29. 10.1177/0194599811401701

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Objective. To construct 3-dimensional (3D) templates of average lip movement based on a group of normal healthy subjects. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, United Kingdom. Subjects and Methods. One hundred fifteen white subjects were asked to perform 2 reproducible verbal gestures (/puppy/and/rope/) in a normal relaxed manner. The sequences were captured using a noninvasive, 3D motion scanner (3dMDFace Dynamic System). Mesh-registration software was used to align sequential facial shells to a standardized reference plane. Lip movement during the verbal facial gestures was quantified using the displacement vectors (x, y, z coordinates) of 6 lip landmarks of sequential 3D facial shells subtracted from the reference or rest shell. Descriptive statistics were used to build references for average lip movement, and independent t tests were used to compare lip movement between men and women. Results. Mean reference movements were created for lip opening, lip stretch, and lip purse that corresponded to the visemes /pu/ /ppy/and /rope/, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the lip movement between genders for the visemes /pu/ and /ppy/, although when quantified these were found not to be of clinical significance. Men favored left-sided movement and women right-sided movement, although only slightly-again, when quantified, this was considered to be within symmetrical limits. Conclusion. It was possible to quantify and create normal templates of lip movement for the words /puppy/ and /rope/. Men and women show similar standardized lip movements for these 2 words.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Uncontrolled Keywords: 3-dimensional, motion analysis, lip movement, average, 3-dimensional motion analysis, reproducibility, mobility
Additional Information: Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
Publisher: American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation
ISSN: 0194-5998
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2022 13:57

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