Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Exploring the phase diagram of 3D artificial spin-ice

Saccone, Michael, Van den Berg, Arjen, Harding, Edward, Singh, Shobhna, Giblin, Sean R. ORCID:, Flicker, Felix ORCID: and Ladak, Sam ORCID: 2023. Exploring the phase diagram of 3D artificial spin-ice. Communications Physics 6 (1) , 217. 10.1038/s42005-023-01338-2

[thumbnail of 42005_2023_Article_1338.pdf] PDF - Published Version
Download (5MB)
[thumbnail of Figures] PDF (Figures) - Supplemental Material
Download (15MB)
License URL:
License Start date: 17 August 2023


Artificial spin-ices consist of lithographic arrays of single-domain magnetic nanowires organised into frustrated lattices. These geometries are usually two-dimensional, allowing a direct exploration of physics associated with frustration, topology and emergence. Recently, three-dimensional geometries have been realised, in which transport of emergent monopoles can be directly visualised upon the surface. Here we carry out an exploration of the three-dimensional artificial spin-ice phase diagram, whereby dipoles are placed within a diamond-bond lattice geometry. We find a rich phase diagram, consisting of a double-charged monopole crystal, a single-charged monopole crystal and conventional spin-ice with pinch points associated with a Coulomb phase. In experimental demagnetised systems, broken symmetry forces formation of ferromagnetic stripes upon the surface, forbidding the lower energy double-charged monopole crystal. Instead, we observe crystallites of single magnetic charge, superimposed upon an ice background. The crystallites are found to form due to the distribution of magnetic charge around the 3D vertex, which locally favours monopole formation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:, Type: open-access
Publisher: Nature Research
ISSN: 2399-3650
Funders: EPSRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 21 August 2023
Date of Acceptance: 7 August 2023
Last Modified: 06 Jan 2024 03:10

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics