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Reproducibility and reliability of the Wilson- Richmond categorisation tool in the assessment of the morphological traits of the lips

Hamilton, Sean, Wilson, Caryl, Playle, Rebecca ORCID:, Toma, Arshed, Zhurov, Alexei ORCID: and Richmond, Stephen ORCID: 2023. Reproducibility and reliability of the Wilson- Richmond categorisation tool in the assessment of the morphological traits of the lips. Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research 50 (4) , pp. 41951-41957. 10.26717/BJSTR.2023.50.007996

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The aim of this article is to demonstrate the reproducibility of the Wilson-Richmond Categorisation Tool for the assessment of lip morphology. This categorisation system was initially developed as a result of the identification of various morphological features of the vermilion of the lips, following the review of three-dimensional facial scans collected on 2,246 patients (1,095 male and 1,151 female) in a 15-yearold population as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The Wilson-Richmond categorisation tool evaluates the six main areas associated with the lips, namely the philtrum, Cupid’s bow, the nasiolabial angle, the upper and lower vermillion and the sub lip region. This tool can be utilised to categorise individuals lip morphology from a topographical perspective and in the assessment and comparison of lip changes that occur during growth. This is the first in a series of papers that will describe the usage of the Wilson-Richmond Categorisation Tool in the assessment of two ethnically different growing populations. The aim of this first article is to demonstrate the reproducibility and reliability of this tool. In this study, Three-dimensional laser scans of (80?) 40 individuals were reviewed and morphologically categorised. In almost all of the classification categories the intra-examiner reliability was greater than the inter-examiner reliability, however both (the intra and inter-examiner reliability) showed high levels of agreement, with the lower double vermillion border and the philtrum width proving to be the most reliable and reproducible categories. The least reliable were the lower vermillion contour and lip-chin shape in both the intra and inter-examiner groups, but these percentage agreements were still sufficiently high enough to indicate good reproducibility and reliability. The intra and inter-examiner percentage agreements were also higher than previously reported figures. Conclusion: This study has shown that the Wilson-Richmond Categorisation Tool is a reproducible and reliable method of assessing the various morphological features of the lips and shows both good inter and intra-examiner reliability. The Wilson-Richmond Categorisation Tool can provide a standardised means of assessment by which further comparisons amongst different, growing, ethnic groups may be compared with a view to identifying population associations. The second paper in this series utilises the WRCT to assess the morphological characteristics of two different ethnic populations of 12-year-old school children.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
ISSN: 2574-1241
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 7 January 2024
Date of Acceptance: 15 September 2023
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2024 12:30

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