Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

An ex Vivo investigation into the transurothelial permeability and bladder wall distribution of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory Ketorolac

Williams, Nicholas, Bowen, Jenna L., Aljayyoussi, Ghaith, Gumbleton, Mark, Allender, Christopher John, Li, Jamie, Harrah, Tim, Raja, Aditya and Joshi, Hrishi B. 2014. An ex Vivo investigation into the transurothelial permeability and bladder wall distribution of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory Ketorolac. Molecular Pharmaceutics 11 (3) , pp. 673-682. 10.1021/mp400274z

[thumbnail of williams et al .pdf]
PDF - Accepted Post-Print Version
Download (1MB) | Preview


Transurothelial drug delivery continues to be an attractive treatment option for a range of urological conditions; however, dosing regimens remain largely empirical. Recently, intravesical delivery of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ketorolac has been shown to significantly reduce ureteral stent-related pain. While this latest development provides an opportunity for advancing the management of stent-related pain, clinical translation will undoubtedly require an understanding of the rate and extent of delivery of ketorolac into the bladder wall. Using an ex vivo porcine model, we evaluate the urothelial permeability and bladder wall distribution of ketorolac. The subsequent application of a pharmacokinetic (PK) model enables prediction of concentrations achieved in vivo. Ketorolac was applied to the urothelium and a transurothelial permeability coefficient (Kp) calculated. Relative drug distribution into the bladder wall after 90 min was determined. Ketorolac was able to permeate the urothelium (Kp = 2.63 × 10–6 cm s–1), and after 90 min average concentrations of 400, 141 and 21 μg g–1 were achieved in the urothelium, lamina propria and detrusor respectively. An average concentration of 87 μg g–1 was achieved across the whole bladder wall. PK simulations (STELLA) were then carried out, using ex vivo values for Kp and muscle/saline partition coefficient (providing an estimation of vascular clearance), to predict 90 min in vivo ketorolac tissue concentrations. When dilution of the drug solution with urine and vascular clearance were taken into account, a reduced ketorolac concentration of 37 μg g–1 across the whole bladder wall was predicted. These studies reveal crucial information about the urothelium’s permeability to agents such as ketorolac and the concentrations achievable in the bladder wall. It would appear that levels of ketorolac delivered to the bladder wall intravesically would be sufficient to provide an anti-inflammatory effect. The combination of such ex vivo data and PK modeling provides an insight into the likelihood of achieving clinically relevant concentrations of drug following intravesical administration.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
Subjects: R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Uncontrolled Keywords: Intravesical; ketorolac; pharmacokinetics; urothelium; stent.
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 1543-8384
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2022 16:48

Citation Data

Cited 4 times in Scopus. View in Scopus. Powered By Scopus® Data

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics