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Multilevel principal component analysis (mPCA) in shape analysis: a feasibility study in medical and dental imaging

Farnell, D. J. J. ORCID:, Popat, H. and Richmond, S. ORCID: 2016. Multilevel principal component analysis (mPCA) in shape analysis: a feasibility study in medical and dental imaging. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 129 , pp. 149-159. 10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.01.005

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Background and objective Methods used in image processing should reflect any multilevel structures inherent in the image dataset or they run the risk of functioning inadequately. We wish to test the feasibility of multilevel principal components analysis (PCA) to build active shape models (ASMs) for cases relevant to medical and dental imaging. Methods Multilevel PCA was used to carry out model fitting to sets of landmark points and it was compared to the results of “standard” (single-level) PCA. Proof of principle was tested by applying mPCA to model basic peri-oral expressions (happy, neutral, sad) approximated to the junction between the mouth/lips. Monte Carlo simulations were used to create this data which allowed exploration of practical implementation issues such as the number of landmark points, number of images, and number of groups (i.e., “expressions” for this example). To further test the robustness of the method, mPCA was subsequently applied to a dental imaging dataset utilising landmark points (placed by different clinicians) along the boundary of mandibular cortical bone in panoramic radiographs of the face. Results Changes of expression that varied between groups were modelled correctly at one level of the model and changes in lip width that varied within groups at another for the Monte Carlo dataset. Extreme cases in the test dataset were modelled adequately by mPCA but not by standard PCA. Similarly, variations in the shape of the cortical bone were modelled by one level of mPCA and variations between the experts at another for the panoramic radiographs dataset. Results for mPCA were found to be comparable to those of standard PCA for point-to-point errors via miss-one-out testing for this dataset. These errors reduce with increasing number of eigenvectors/values retained, as expected. Conclusions We have shown that mPCA can be used in shape models for dental and medical image processing. mPCA was found to provide more control and flexibility when compared to standard “single-level” PCA. Specifically, mPCA is preferable to “standard” PCA when multiple levels occur naturally in the dataset.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Additional Information: Available online 16 January 2016 Pdf uploaded in accordance with publisher's policy at (accessed 01/02/2016)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0169-2607
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Date of Acceptance: 8 January 2016
Last Modified: 07 Nov 2023 03:29

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