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Cellulose nanofibril formulations incorporating a low molecular weight alginate oligosaccharide modify bacterial biofilm development

Jack, Alison A., Nordli, Henriette R., Powell, Lydia C., Farnell, Damian J. J., Pukstad, Brita, Rye, Philip D., Thomas, David W., Chinga-Carrasco, Gary and Hill, Katja E. 2019. Cellulose nanofibril formulations incorporating a low molecular weight alginate oligosaccharide modify bacterial biofilm development. Biomacromolecules 20 (8) , pp. 2953-2961. 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00522

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Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from wood pulp are a renewable material possessing advantages for biomedical applications, due to their customizable porosity, mechanical strength, translucency and environmental biodegradability. Here we investigated the growth of multi-species wound biofilms on CNF formulated as aerogels and films incorporating the low molecular weight alginate oligosaccharide OligoG CF-5/20 to evaluate their structural and antimicrobial properties. Overnight microbial cultures were adjusted to 2.8 x 109 colony forming units (cfu) mL-1 in Mueller Hinton broth and growth rates of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and S. aureus 1061A monitored for 24 h in CNF dispersions sterilized by γ-irradiation. Two CNF formulations were prepared (20 g m-2) with CNF as air-dried films or freeze-dried aerogels, with or without incorporation of an antimicrobial alginate oligosaccharide (OligoG CF-5/20) as a surface coating or bio-nanocomposite respectively. The materials were structurally characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and laser profilometry (LP). The antimicrobial properties of the formulations were assessed using single- and mixed-species biofilms grown on the materials and analysed using LIVE/DEAD® staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and COMSTAT software. OligoG-CNF suspensions significantly decreased the growth of both bacterial strains at OligoG concentrations >2.58% (P<0.05). SEM showed that aerogel-OligoG bio-nanocomposite formulations had a more open 3-dimensional structure, while LP showed film formulations coated with OligoG were significantly smoother than untreated films or films incorporating PEG400 as a plasticizer (P<0.05). CLSM of biofilms grown on films incorporating OligoG demonstrated altered biofilm architecture, with reduced biomass and decreased cell-viability. The OligoG-CNF formulations as aerogels or films both inhibited pyocyanin production (P<0.05). These novel CNF formulations or bio-nanocomposites were able to modify bacterial growth, biofilm development and virulence factor production in vitro. These data support the potential of OligoG and CNF bio-nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications where prevention of infection or biofilm growth is required.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 1525-7797
Funders: Norwegian Research Council
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 3 July 2019
Date of Acceptance: 28 June 2019
Last Modified: 28 Sep 2022 20:00

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