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Cellulose nanofibril formulations incorporating a low molecular weight alginate oligosaccharide modify bacterial biofilm development

Jack, Alison A., Nordli, Henriette R., Powell, Lydia C. ORCID:, Farnell, Damian J. J. ORCID:, Pukstad, Brita, Rye, Philip D., Thomas, David W., Chinga-Carrasco, Gary and Hill, Katja E. ORCID: 2019. Cellulose nanofibril formulations incorporating a low molecular weight alginate oligosaccharide modify bacterial biofilm development. Biomacromolecules 20 (8) , pp. 2953-2961. 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00522

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Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from wood pulp are a renewable material possessing advantages for biomedical applications, due to their customizable porosity, mechanical strength, translucency and environmental biodegradability. Here we investigated the growth of multi-species wound biofilms on CNF formulated as aerogels and films incorporating the low molecular weight alginate oligosaccharide OligoG CF-5/20 to evaluate their structural and antimicrobial properties. Overnight microbial cultures were adjusted to 2.8 x 109 colony forming units (cfu) mL-1 in Mueller Hinton broth and growth rates of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and S. aureus 1061A monitored for 24 h in CNF dispersions sterilized by γ-irradiation. Two CNF formulations were prepared (20 g m-2) with CNF as air-dried films or freeze-dried aerogels, with or without incorporation of an antimicrobial alginate oligosaccharide (OligoG CF-5/20) as a surface coating or bio-nanocomposite respectively. The materials were structurally characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and laser profilometry (LP). The antimicrobial properties of the formulations were assessed using single- and mixed-species biofilms grown on the materials and analysed using LIVE/DEAD® staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and COMSTAT software. OligoG-CNF suspensions significantly decreased the growth of both bacterial strains at OligoG concentrations >2.58% (P<0.05). SEM showed that aerogel-OligoG bio-nanocomposite formulations had a more open 3-dimensional structure, while LP showed film formulations coated with OligoG were significantly smoother than untreated films or films incorporating PEG400 as a plasticizer (P<0.05). CLSM of biofilms grown on films incorporating OligoG demonstrated altered biofilm architecture, with reduced biomass and decreased cell-viability. The OligoG-CNF formulations as aerogels or films both inhibited pyocyanin production (P<0.05). These novel CNF formulations or bio-nanocomposites were able to modify bacterial growth, biofilm development and virulence factor production in vitro. These data support the potential of OligoG and CNF bio-nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications where prevention of infection or biofilm growth is required.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 1525-7797
Funders: Norwegian Research Council
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 3 July 2019
Date of Acceptance: 28 June 2019
Last Modified: 11 Nov 2022 02:05

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