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4th generation nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors: An iterative SAR-guided design, synthesis, and biological evaluation towards picomolar dual binding inhibitors

Eissa, Ahmed G., Barrow, Denise, Gee, Julia ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6483-2015, Powell, Lauren E., Foster, Paul A. and Simons, Claire ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9487-1100 2022. 4th generation nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors: An iterative SAR-guided design, synthesis, and biological evaluation towards picomolar dual binding inhibitors. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 240 , 114569. 10.1016/j.ejmech.2022.114569

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Abstract

One in every eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime and approximately 70% of all patients are oestrogen receptor (ER) positive depending upon oestrogen for their growth accounting for third generation aromatase (CYP19A1) inhibitors being the mainstay in the treatment of ER-positive breast cancer. Despite the success of current aromatase inhibitors, acquired resistance occurs after prolonged therapy. Although the precise mechanisms of resistance are not known, lack of cross resistance among aromatase inhibitors drives the need for a newer generation of inhibitors to overcome this resistance alongside minimising toxicity and adverse effects. Novel triazole-based inhibitors were designed based on previously published parent compound 5a, making use of the now available crystal structure of CYP19A1 (PDB 3S79), to make modifications at specific sites to explore the potential of dual binding at both the active site and the access channel. Modifications included adding long chain substituents e.g. but-2-ynyloxy and pent-2-ynyloxy at different positions including the most active compound 13h with IC50 value in the low picomolar range (0.09 nM). Aromatase inhibition results paired with molecular dynamics studies provided a clear structure activity relationship and favourable dual binding mode was verified. Toxicity assays and CYP selectivity profile studies for some example compounds were performed to assess the safety profile of the prepared inhibitors providing the basis for the 4th generation nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
Additional Information: This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0223-5234
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 12 July 2022
Date of Acceptance: 23 June 2022
Last Modified: 05 Nov 2022 02:53
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/151250

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