Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination enhances the effector qualities of spike-specific T cells induced by COVID-19

Cai, Curtis, Gao, Yu, Adamo, Sarah, Rivera-Ballesteros, Olga, Hansson, Lotta, Österborg, Anders, Bergman, Peter, Sandberg, Johan K., Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf, Björkström, Niklas K., Strålin, Kristoffer, Llewellyn-Lacey, Sian, Price, David A. ORCID:, Qin, Chuan, Grifoni, Alba, Weiskopf, Daniela, Wherry, E. John, Sette, Alessandro, Aleman, Soo and Buggert, Marcus 2023. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination enhances the effector qualities of spike-specific T cells induced by COVID-19. Science Immunology 8 (90) 10.1126/sciimmunol.adh0687

[thumbnail of SARS-CoV2.pdf]
PDF - Accepted Post-Print Version
Download (5MB) | Preview


T cells are critical for immune protection against severe COVID-19, but it has remained unclear whether repeated exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigens delivered in the context of vaccination fuels T cell exhaustion or reshapes T cell functionality. Here, we sampled convalescent donors with a history of mild or severe COVID-19 before and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination to profile the functional spectrum of hybrid T cell immunity. Using combined single-cell technologies and high-dimensional flow cytometry, we found that the frequencies and functional capabilities of spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in previously infected individuals were enhanced by vaccination, despite concomitant increases in the expression of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1 and TIM3. In contrast, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting non-spike proteins remained functionally static and waned over time, and only minimal effects were observed in healthy vaccinated donors experiencing breakthrough infections with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, hybrid immunity was characterized by elevated expression of IFN-γ, which was linked with clonotype specificity in the CD8+ T cell lineage. Collectively, these findings identify a molecular hallmark of hybrid immunity and suggest that vaccination after infection is associated with cumulative immunological benefits over time, potentially conferring enhanced protection against subsequent episodes of COVID-19.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
ISSN: 2470-9468
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 25 January 2024
Date of Acceptance: 31 October 2023
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2024 05:51

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics