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Deciphering antihormone-induced compensatory mechanisms in breast cancer and their therapeutic implications

Gee, Julia Margaret Wendy, Shaw, Victoria E., Hiscox, Stephen Edward, McClelland, Richard Andrew, Rushmere, N. K. and Nicholson, Robert Ian 2006. Deciphering antihormone-induced compensatory mechanisms in breast cancer and their therapeutic implications. Endocrine-Related Cancer 13 (S1) , S77-S88. 10.1677/erc.1.01274

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Breast cancer inhibition by antihormones is rarely complete, and our studies using responsive models reveal the remarkable flexibility of breast cancer cells in recruiting alternative signalling to limit maximal anti-tumour effects of oestrogen receptor α (ER) blockade. The recruited mechanism involves antihormone-induced expression of oestrogen-repressed signalling genes. For example, epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) is induced by antioestrogens and maintains residual kinase and ER phosphorylation, cell survival genes, and thereby allows incomplete antihormone response and emergence of resistance. Microarrays are revealing the breadth of antihormone-induced genes that may attenuate growth inhibition, including NFκB, Bag1, 14-3-3ζ and tyrosine kinases, such as HER2 and Lyn. Three concepts are emerging: first, some genes are induced exclusively by antioestrogens, while others extend to oestrogen deprivation; secondly, some are transiently induced, while others persist into resistance; finally, some confer additional adverse features when tumour cells are in an appropriate context. Among the latter is CD59 whose antioestrogen induction may permit evasion of immune surveillance in vivo. Also, induction of pro-invasive genes (including NFκB, RhoE and δ-catenin) may underlie our findings that antioestrogens can markedly stimulate migratory behaviour when tumour intercellular contacts are compromised. Based on our promising studies selectively inhibiting EGFR (gefitinib), NFκB (parthenolide) or CD59 (neutralising antibody) together with antioestrogens, we propose that co-targeting strategies could markedly improve anti-tumour activity (notably enhancing cell kill) during the antihormone-responsive phase. Furthermore, subverting those induced signalling genes that are retained into resistance (e.g. EGFR, NFκB, HER2) may prove valuable in this state. Alongside future deciphering and targeting of genes underlying antioestrogen-promoted invasiveness, embracing of intelligent combination strategies could significantly extend patient survival.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Additional Information: This paper was presented at the 2nd Tenovus/AstraZeneca Workshop, Cardiff (2006). AstraZeneca supported the meeting and the Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University has supported the publication of these proceedings.
Publisher: Society for Endocrinology
ISSN: 1351-0088
Last Modified: 12 Jun 2019 02:10

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