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Sub-lytic C5b-9 induces functional changes in retinal pigment epithelial cells consistent with age-related macular degeneration

Lueck, K., Wasmuth, S., Williams, J., Hughes, Timothy Richard ORCID:, Morgan, Bryan Paul ORCID:, Lommatzsch, A., Greenwood, J., Moss, Sarah E. and Pauleikhoff, D. 2011. Sub-lytic C5b-9 induces functional changes in retinal pigment epithelial cells consistent with age-related macular degeneration. Eye 25 (8) , pp. 1074-1082. 10.1038/eye.2011.109

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PURPOSE: There is evidence for complement dysfunction in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Complement activation leads to formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), known to assemble on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Therefore, the effect of sub-lytic MAC on RPE cells was examined with regard to pro-inflammatory or pro-angiogenic mediators relevant in AMD. METHODS: For sub-lytic MAC induction, RPE cells were incubated with an antiserum to complement regulatory protein CD59, followed by normal human serum (NHS) to induce 5% cell death, measured by a viability assay. MAC formation was evaluated by immunofluorescence and FACS analysis. Interleukin (IL)-6, -8, monocytic chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intracellular MCP-1 was analysed by immunofluorescence, vitronectin by western blotting, and gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by zymography. RESULTS: Incubation of RPE cells with the CD59 antiserum followed by 5% NHS induced sub-lytic amounts of MAC, verified by FACS and immunofluorescence. This treatment stimulated the cells to release IL-6, -8, MCP-1, and VEGF. MCP-1 staining, production of vitronectin, and gelatinolytic MMPs were also elevated in response to sub-lytic MAC. CONCLUSIONS: MAC assembly on RPE cells increases the IL-6, -8, and MCP-1 production. Therefore, sub-lytic MAC might have a significant role in generating a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, contributing to the development of AMD. Enhanced vitronectin might be a protective mechanism against MAC deposition. In addition, the increased expression of gelatinolytic MMPs and pro-angiogenic VEGF may be associated with neovascular processes and late AMD.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Uncontrolled Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, membrane attack complex, complement
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
ISSN: 0950-222X
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2022 08:56

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